Modern concrete staircase with your own hands is a reliable and practical solution for solid brick or concrete houses that can serve its owner for many decades. This design has the unique technical and operational characteristics, and a list of benefits that have concrete stairs, is very large.
The content of the article:
- Types of staircases from concrete
- The necessary calculations
- How to make formwork
- The principle of manufacturing staircases from concrete
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Tips for building
To make their own staircase of concrete is not difficult, if you choose a ladder with a too complex design. It is important to have the drawing on hand, to understand the basic concepts and nuances, and you can start (of course, not alone).
How to make concrete stairs essential aspects of the installation work and their features, and will tell you this stuff.
Concrete stairs can be divided according to the type of stairs or March in straight, turning, spiral, combo, screw.
Depending on the design there are variations of monolithic concrete stairs:
- One video has the most simple construction, its length is 4.5 m, and the placement in a residential home very difficult;
- 2 the main deck is the most common option that best combines the reliability, security and ease of exploitation;
- Concrete spiral staircase construction with the installation of the highest complexity and most of space is about 9.5 sq. m.
- Concrete stairs with winder steps
- Smooth with a spiral bend (and can it still be called polovikova stairs) – this is a concrete staircase to the second floor in contrast to the 2 March is not equipped with a platform, but features a stylish and attractive design;
- With rounded steps – better this option looks at the entrances or the stairs with increased step width;
Quality stairs of concrete with their hands involves a series of preliminary calculations at the design stage. The first step is to carry out the calculations for the width of the March, the height and length of the step, and the total length of the stairs. Soon we will program the appropriate calculator that will do the calculating concrete stairs online, prepare the necessary drawings.
Calculate wooden staircase with a 90 degree turn with the help of our online calculator.
Experts advise to adhere to the following standards:
- Step height – 17 cm (it should be taken into account and the subsequent finishing);
- The step width is 28-30 cm (the best option, even for a 45-foot size);
- Span width – not less than 80-90 cm, according to norms;
- Span length – 45 degree angle – 3 m, 35 degree – 4.3 m, 25 C is 6.4 m.
Special attention is given consideration of the angle of inclination of the concrete stairs. Do not get involved in the process of saving materials and space, increasing the angle of inclination.
The stairs should not be steeper than 45 degrees because there is a higher risk of injury. The most comfortable inclination of the stairs in the house is around 30 degrees.
Once we have the drawing of the staircase of concrete and the required parameters, it is possible to manufacture concrete stairs in the following sequence: the production of formwork, reinforcement binding, concrete casting. Let's consider the stages in more detail.
First we need prostroit the wall to a depth of about ten centimeters in order to continue to fill the main area. Then start collecting furniture for our future steps, for example, let it be a staircase, the design is more complicated straight concrete.
Formwork for concrete stairs provides for the creation of a skeleton of timber for treads and face of the formwork use a Board thickness of 30 mm; 20 mm plywood with resistance to water uses for the manufacture of the bottom panel floor formwork for columns and supports optimal timber 100x100 mm, under curved elements suitable for OSB-panels or plywood.
To avoid hogging all the elements of the formwork is treated with a varnish based on alkyd or wrapped with polyethylene (and sometimes roofing). It is very important to adjust elements firmly to each other, to make sure that no gap formed. Otherwise, the concrete may break the design.
For fastening components in a single unit using screws – nails will then be very difficult to pull out. The best option – phosphated screws with partial thread. Do not be redundant as steel angles and short wooden beams, the cutting of which by size is carried out by means of saws or jigsaws.
When you install props must take into account the thickness of the concrete stairs and a large mass of concrete.
The load on the rack should be such that even if the empty casing, they did not SAG in the air. In case of need under them should have the special wedges or pads. To link stands between them should be used unedged Board – so design will be even greater rigidity and durability.
Continue installation of concrete stair forming reinforcement cage. The valve takes the brunt of the burden of the whole structure. Therefore, it should be strong enough.
Reinforcement in lateral projection is performed in increments of 250-300 mm. the Reinforcement sites is performed with a step of 200 mm in each direction. The figure below shows an example of excessive diligence in tying of rebar, a stairway will pass the tank. With proper load calculation is similar to the stairs at the initial stage of design of Foundation, nothing bad will happen, but if the Foundation is not designed for such heavy construction, that could easily be a collapse due to excessive load.
A steel rod placed in the direction of the bearing faces. The diameter of 10-12 mm. For the connection use a cross connection.
Fixing of stair components is notpreferably carried out using the welding machine, the reason is the weakening of strength in mind the heating of the carbon contained in valves. However, in some cases, this ability of carbon are used when working with rebar.
It is better to resort to the tried tie-wire, twisting it by means of a special hook – long and tedious, but safely.
The distance between the frame and the lower part of the casing should be about 3 cm for these purposes perfectly fit the plastic retaining clips.
In addition, the concrete stairs needs fixing the reinforcing frame to the walls, where drill holes of required diameter and hammered them into the bars of reinforcement – additional strength and stability is clearly not superfluous.
In conclusion, mount a steel plate or an embedded tube of wood for a future fence of the staircase.
After that comes the turn of concrete structures. To obtain the most robust solution, experts recommend to adhere to the following proportions in its manufacture (the volume is specified in liters):
- Cement – 1 (mark PTS-400);
- Gravel – 4;
- Sand – 2;
- Water – 0.6.
- The plasticizer is 0.01.
To save on concrete in any case impossible, because the stairs needs to be durable and reliable for your safety.
The order of adding components is the following:
- Gravel – clean the walls from the remnants of a concrete mix;
- Cement and dry sand;
- Stirring of the mixture dry for 1 minute;
- Stirring the solution for 2 minutes.
For mixing the composition it is recommended to use a cement mixer – no matter how careful was not manual kneading, the density of concrete in total will be reduced by about 20%. If the resulting composition is too thick, add water to total volume of part 1 (0,6 initially), but no more.
The ebb is carried out bottom - up: bottom of steps, with periodic compaction of the mortar and align it by means of a trowel. In order that the steps are not formed at random voids due to air, we recommend you to pierce the mass of concrete immediately valves, so casting will be smoother.
Once the work has been completed, the exposed parts of the base cover with polyethylene. In about 3-4 weeks at room temperature the concrete will gain about 80% of its final strength.
Can be polyethylene, but it is necessary to regularly moisten your ladder with water to prevent possible cracking of the concrete.
The next stage – finish the concrete stairs, which provides the required design aesthetics. For finishing you can use various materials – most commonly used wood, the installation of which is not a problem, and the cost is very affordable.
However, high demand for the decoration also uses tiles, natural stone and other floor and wall coverings. It all depends on the overall design of the house and the wishes of its owner.
For concrete stairs, characterized by the following advantages:
- Built directly in the construction of the house and is actively used during all installation and construction works;
- Provides the structure additional strength and reliability;
- Have a long-term involvement without loss of operating parameters;
- Resistant to moisture and does not require maintenance;
- Available from a cost point of view.
Among the shortcomings it is worth to highlight are:
- A large mass of spans;
- Time-consuming process of manufacture.
For those interested in how to build concrete stairs properly, experts advise to adhere to these guidelines:
- Concreting of the March carried out in one step;
- The diameter of the aggregates for the mixture should be about 10-20 mm – this will prevent the solution from excessive "mobility";
- Grade of concrete shall be not less than 15;
- Special attention should be paid to the compaction of the concrete, as poor work can have a negative impact on the overall strength of the structure. It is best to perform sealing by means of electrovibrators.
The question how to pour concrete stairs on their own, considered. This process is quite complicated, but with proper attention, patience and perseverance, nothing is impossible. Be sure to consider the above recommendations and you will definitely succeed.